Source: SAGE Research Methods.

Sources: An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis.

Source: Cambridge Dictionary

Source: Closer Learning Hub

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

Source: Cambridge Dictionary.

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

Source: How to FAIR.

Source: ONS; Understanding Society.

Source: SAGE Research Methods .

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

Source: Learn Statistics Easily.

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

Source: The World Bank.

Resources: Centre for Statistical Methodology; STATA; Science Direct; UCLA Institute for Digital Research & Education.

Sources: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences;

- higher degree
- first degree
- further education below degree
- GCSE or equivalent
- no qualification

Source: Stat Trek Statistics Dictionary.

Source: SAGE Research Methods..

Source: Closer Learning Hub.

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

Source: CODA.

Source: Encyclopaedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research.

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

The standard error is also inversely proportional to the sample size; the larger the sample size, the smaller the standard error.

Source: Stat Trek Statistics Dictionary.

They typically consist of a collection of probability distributions and are used to describe patterns of variability that data may display.

The statistical model is expressed as a function. For example, a researcher may model a linear relationship using the regression function below:

y = b_{0} + b_{1}x_{1} + b_{2}x_{2} ... + b_{i}x_{i}

In this model, y represents an outcome variable and x_{i} represents its corresponding predictor variables. The term b_{0} is an intercept for the model. The term b_{i} is a regression coefficient and represents the numerical relationship between the predictor variables and the outcome for the *i*th term.

Statistical modelling is a major topic. Readers who want to know more will find extensive accounts of statistical models including linear regression and logistic regression in statistical texts and online.

Sources: Science Direct; Magoosh Statistics Blog.

Sources: An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis; Stat Trek Statistics Dictionary.

Survey design involves a series of methodological steps to create an effective survey, such as defining an objective, determining a target population, designing the questionnaire etc.

Survey design can also refer to the structure or format of the survey, such as a cross-sectional survey, longitudinal survey etc.

Item nonresponse occurs when a sample member responds to the survey but fails to provide a valid response to a particular item (e.g. a question they refuse to answer).

Unit nonresponse occurs when eligible sample members either cannot be contacted, refuse to participate in the survey or do not provide sufficient information for their responses to be valid. Unit nonresponse can be a source of bias in survey estimates and reducing unit nonresponse is an important objective of good survey practice.

Source: SAGE Research Methods.

- female
- male
- other

Source: Stat Trek Statistics Dictionary

Source: Closer Learning Hub.

Source: SAGE Research Methods.